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How to combat dehydration - Part 2

Tips to consider when replenishing fluids during and after physical training.

Health and Esthetics

By  Patrick Sassoli 

The exhaustive practice of exercise under extreme conditions can affect the body's ability to respond adequately to stress.Generating consequences of hyperthermia related to dehydration, causing deterioration of physical performance and the central nervous system, increasing the possibility of feared heat stroke with severe aftermath and even death (Douglas, 1999).

Mild to severe symptoms due to dehydration and hyperthermia:   

 A) Dehydration  

  • Exhaustion
  • thirst
  • dry mouth
  • difficulty swallowing excessive sweating saliva
  • ,
  • weakness,
  • dizziness
  • nausea.
  •  abdominal cramps 
  • Muscle cramps
  • Increased heart rate
  • Cold sweating
  • Headache
  • vertigo
  • Decreased coordination

Suggestions to compensate for the above signs

Replacement of electrolytes by liquids through water and rehydrating or isotonic drinks.

As far as possible to eat some kind of food and carbohydrate containing salt

Cool shower, rest and rest

Stay in a cool and ventilated environment.

 B) Heat syncope 

  • vertigo
  • cold sweating.
  • Tachycardia
  • excessive
  • increase in body temperature*decrease in blood pressure.
  • fainting


Request medical help

Lay the person on his back (supine), in case he has vomiting put him on his side.

Find a cool place where air circulates

Avoid direct rays of the sun

Fanning it gently

Do not surround the person

Place cold or wet cloths on the head, forehead and nape mainly.

As long as it comes back to itself give small sips of fluids and rest in the supine position for full recovery.

 C) Heat stroke 

  • Internal body temperature exceeds 40° Celsius
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • convulsions,
  • confusion
  • coma
  • death.

Request emergency medical help. Requires immediate hospitalization.

Evaporation caused by sweat limits the increase in central body temperature, but this mechanism causes prolonged or intense dehydration, which may damage cardiovascular function, causing a drop in blood flow in muscles, skin and other tissues. When ambient humidity is high, sweat evaporation is limited, so that water and electrolytes continue to lose, but without causing a decrease in body temperature (Maughan, 2010)

Some tips:

 How much liquid to drink per day? 

Sedentary people who practice light to moderate physical activity of 2 ½ to 3 liters per day.

For athletes on their day of rest 3 to 4 liters.

If we are in the process of rehydration this rule changes and we will drink a glass of water every 20 minutes. Drink slowly and in small sips. Once we feel thirsty, we're getting dehydrated. Minerals and trace elements do not have calories. Natural, sweet free water hydration is the most effective. There are mineral salts that can be added to water

The liquid is absorbed better and at a higher speed between 12 and 21 degrees, if the temperature of the liquid is extremely cold it will take longer to be assimilated.

 How much to drink in training or competitions?  

Use what we call a voluntary hydration system. It is necessary to take a sip of water of about 150 milliliters every 15'minutes this will give us approximately 300 milliliters every half hour and 600 to 700 every 1 hour. The problem of ingesting more is that we will not be able to assimilate that amount of fluid entered, bringing as a consequence, bladder filling, desire to urinate and the discomfort that this generates in competition, especially in great cycling laps, ultra distance races, triathlons and marathons.

To avoid these problems, pre-hydration is key at least 3 hours before training or competition

  • Ingest 1 glass of water every 20' to 30'minutes
  • Isotonic drinks, When to incorporate them?

In vigor and over 45' training

In competition

Indoors Workouts

With high ambient temperature

High humidity percentage

The isotonic drink is usually desirable to drink it from 40' after the activity started so as to avoid the peak of insulin, alternating it with water.

Staying hydrated helps to release toxins, (waste products of elevated metabolism due to efforts), which go to the lymph (lymphatic system) helping to clean the circulatory stream.

Blood is the substance that oxygenates, nourishes and feeds our muscles for contraction and relaxation.Water will help us compensate for electrolytes (minerals)


Take into account in the replacement of electrolytes, that excess consumption of salts is harmful.

 What is the hydration technique like? 

This balance is complicated because in general we cannot assimilate the same amount of liquid lost in a short time.

During training it is not useful to take large amounts of fluid suddenly, that can bring us colic, bloating and it will go to the bladder.

 What liquids am I going to drink?  

Calculate the amount of liquid that the activity to perform will demand and whether I can resolve the proper logistics for those purposes.

 The best drink is pure water , the issue is that it is low in salts, sodium chloride, which is the mineral that we lose most in sweating, is low in electrolytes. This drink is recommended as a basis in all activity and mainly for the first part of training or competitions, or even in moderate, regenerative physical activities that do not exceed the hour.

 Then we have the drinks called rehydrating solutions.  Currently called isotonic or sports drinks. These have sugars in the form of sucrose, glucose, corn syrup in the form of fructose, citric acid etc. They include in their composition mineral salts in low doses of sodium, usually in the form of sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate, potassium, magnesium, and other minerals (carbohydrates and electrolytes) and flavorings to make them pleasantYou can start drinking within 30 minutes of intense activities or long 2-hour workouts or more.

 A good option is to mix water with moisturizing drink. 

 In addition there are energizing drinks , they raise heart rate, diuresis and can increase blood pressure. Therefore it is recommended to consult your doctor for proper use.

 Patrick Sassoli is Orthos
Certified Physical
Trainer Spain Olympic Trainer specializing in cycling, triathlon, marathon and endurance sports,
Coach and Team Technician, Sports
Founder of the first training center specialized in cycling in Latin America, located in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.
Director and Founder of Stage One Cycling School.
Director of Live Biking Pro Race.
Creator of the Insite, first professional method of stationary cycling.
Current technician of Team Stage One Live Biking
Founder of the Metropolitan Cycling Association CABA.
Founder of the Bike Park Center in CABA.
Vice President, RwBike
Director, LIVE BIKING (Planning and Training Method in High Performance Cycling and Triathlon),

 E mail:
E mail:
Insite: @livebikingpro
Insite: @patrickcoachsassoli

Publication Date: 15/09/2020

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