In this arbitrary selection, we tell you the books that changed the history of mankind.
- Dialogues (Plato). These are different texts where the Greek philosopher, Plato, brings the voice of Socrates, who discusses with his contemporaries the great metaphysical, moral and political problems. Plato lived from 387 to 347 a. C, was a disciple of Socrates and a teacher Aristotle. Between the three, from ancient Greece, they changed the Western philosophy forever.
- Bible/Torah/Koran. They are nothing less than the Holy Scriptures that shaped three of the world's most practiced monotheistic religions: Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
- Beowulf (Anonymous). It is considered the first poem in a modern European language that reflects a feudal, newly Christian world of heroes and monsters, blood and victory. The author and the date of composition are unknown, although the date of publication is estimated to be between the eighth and twelfth centuries AD. C. It is written in Old English and has 3182 verses.
- The divine comedy (Dante Alighieri). The great poem of the Italian Alighieri, where hell, purgatory and paradise had never been represented with such mastery and lyricism.Dante summarizes a knowledge accumulated from centuries, from antiquity to the medieval world, with the religious faith and the moral and philosophical convictions present in each verse. It is estimated that it was first published in 1307.
- Hamlet (William Shakespeare). One of the most emblematic works of the English Elizabethan theatre. It is said that with Hamlet, the consciousness of the subject was born, which philosophers like Kant will then address in their works. It was published sometime between 1599 and 1601.
- The ingenious gentleman don Quixote de la Mancha (Miguel de Cervantes). It began as a mockery of the cavalry works of the time and became the top work of Spanish literature. It was published in 1605 and represents the first modern novel and the first polyphonic novel.
- The discourse of the method (René Descartes). “ I think, then I exist” was the famous phrase of René Descartes that gave birth to a new way of knowing and knowing the world. He marked a break in Western thought.It was published anonymously in Leiden, Holland, in 1637 under the title: “Discourse of the method of conducting one's reason well and seeking truth in the sciences”.
- Criticism (Emmanuel Kant). Criticism of pure reason, practical reason, and judgment are the three pillars of the magna work of German Inmanuel Kant. There he reflects on the faculties of reason, understanding and sensibility, among other major issues. The criticism of pure reason, first published in 1781, deals with a transcendental inquiry into the epistemic conditions of human knowledge whose central objective is to achieve a definitive answer on whether metaphysics can be considered a science.
- The origin of the species (Charles Darwin). With this book, the English scientist Charles Darwin presented his theory of evolution through natural selection. Today it remains the basis of the study of nature for contemporary biology. It was published on November 24, 1859 and is considered a precursor of scientific literature and the foundation of the theory of evolutionary biology.
- The capital (Karl Marx). Undoubtedly, the most revolutionary and influential text. There, the German Marx unraveled and explained the foundations of the capitalist system and its class struggle, through a treatise of critique of political economy. At the same time it is considered a work of philosophy, an economic or political treatise that describes the relations of domination between the social classes: on the one hand the proletarians and on the other the bourgeois. It was published in 1867.
- Thus spoke Zarathustra (Friedrichnietzsche). In this work, the thinker synthesizes the essential of his philosophy, destined to the creation of superman. Some consider this text as the counterfigure of the Bible and a handbook for those who seek theto Truth, Good and Evil.It contains Nietzsche's main poetically expressed ideas, and is composed of stories, discourses, facts and reflections of a prophet named Zarathustra (character inspired by Zoroaster, founder of Mazdeism or Zoroastrianism). It was printed in 1883.
- Dream Interpretation (Sigmund Freud). No theory as psychoanalytic doctrine exerted as much influence as that of Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, who established a different way of understanding psychic reality. The author argues that dreams are a hallucinatory realization of desires and, consequently, a privileged way of access to the unconscious, through the use of the interpretative method based on the free association of the most important symbols of sleep. It was published in November 1899 and revolutionized the 20th century.
- The second sex (Simone de Beauvoir). One of the main books on Feminism, where the famous phrase of the philosopher resounds: “Woman is made, not born”.Its author, Simone-Lucie-Ernestine-Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir, began writing it when he reflected on what being a woman meant to her. It was published in 1949.
Source: Sec. of Culture of the Nation