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The new policy

One hundred and thirty years ago, the creation of several political parties would end up giving rise to a different kind of thinkers. Who were they? What were your goals?

Historia 33

In the late nineteenth century, those factions that were still associated with the endless struggle between   unitarians    and     federal   sectors, were crossed by other sectors. The  conservative attempt to create a single party  failed to prevent  avant-garde  ideas from bringing new condiments. The existence of intense contact with European immigration would open the way for certain innovative trends, which were based on social flows beyond the Atlantic. Even the  anarchists  ended up having a space between the options of modern Argentina.

Without warning it, the  lay   postulates  to which   Julio Argentino Roca   himself adhered, gradually opened the way to a  new type of thought that he himself did not share . This would become noticeable since 1890. The  avant-garde  would identify themselves more with the  first workers' movements  than with the  well-off classes  . So, opposing the hegemony represented by the  National Autonomist Party of Roca , Leandro N. Alem founded the  Radical Party in 1891 and  Juan B. Justo  in 1896 the  Socialist Party .

The affinity between the two currents, without going into details, did not seem so strange. Roca's followers soon began to confuse each other. Despite the fact that radicalism was from its  federal  and  social democratic  bases, in later times and in a derogatory manner, the  Conservatives  would refer to  radicals  as part of a much-cited “  socialist coalition  .”

Marcela García Sebastiani, professor at the Faculty of Political Science and Sociology at the Complutense University of Madrid, expresses in “ Radicals and Socialists in Peronist Argentina” :

“By 1936, and in the light of the experience of the Popular Fronts on the European stage, an opposition to the government had formed a joint of which the UCR, the PS, the Progressive Democratic Party and the Communist Party were part.” With the description of this context, he concludes by explaining that “the then called Popular Front aroused the most exacerbated criticism from the  conservatives    in power  .”

This association between  radicals  and  socialists  , however, was undermined at different times by its intense differences. The situation can be clearly represented when it comes to talking about the uncompromising opposition of the socialist Alfredo Palacios to the radical government of  Hipolito Yrigoyen .

Despite this distancing to which their own evolution precipitated them, the struggle of both historical blocs was fundamental for the intellectual development of the last decade of the nineteenth century.  David Rock  in “ Argentine Radicalism”  (Ediciones Amorrortu - Buenos Aires, 1977), describes in detail the Radical Uprisings of 1890  . Opposition to the policies pursued by the  Conservatives  in resolving the country's internal problems was very determined. However, they did nothing but tighten the government's approach. The president completely ignored the opposition by treating her with contempt. When not, resorting to force.

 Julio Argentino Roca  was the most finished representative of the famous  Eighty Generation . His  conception of Argentina  then went through the modernization of  Buenos Aires , which was given a classic European architectural look. The aim would have been to remove the  colonial imprint  on a city more open to the Old World than to the interior. On the other hand, the development of  Patagonia  also occupied Roca's mind. It inaugurated a new communications system that connected the  Strait of Magellan  to the Rio de la Plata. With such actions it was clear that the   Conquest of the Desert   had not been left behind; it would still be his great gesture and was included in his ideology. Although it took second place with respect to the development of the capital, it did not abandon the possibility of annexing the south to  Buenos Aires . Of course, such a way of thinking would lead to new conflicts. Many of them are still open today.

The Law on the Residence of Foreigners proposed by Miguel Cané, passed in 1902, ended up causing serious incidents for many decades, until its repeal.  It gave the State the possibility to arrest any alien suspected of disrupting public order, without the intervention of a judge.  

Many of those socialists and anarchists who came from Revolutionary Europe ended up being expelled from the country. It is true that the same law allowed the entry of Patagonian settlers and immigrants from the First Wave, but it must also be said that this was a scenario of great ideolo restrictionsgic.

However, current historiography admits that the episodes of  Tragic Patagonia  that occurred in 1920 and 1921 have their origin in this circumstance. The workers' strike in  Santa Cruz  could not be avoided, due to the poor conditions that the Conquest of the Desert had led to. Everything was missing and the territory was immense. At that time he ruled  Yrigoyen , who yielded to requests from various sectors interested in swiftly defusing the problem. As a result, many of the tacit agreements between the new political movements of the twentieth century ended up dissolving. The idea was, first of all,  not to get infected with the Russian Revolution .

But the south of the country was still a desert. The conquest was very complex and could not be solved. Earlier those lands were the dominion of chiefs and untamed spirits of unspeakable ancestors.  Now the cold was the ungodly witness to the same ideological battles that were fought in  Buenos Aires . 

 Julio Argentino Roca was president for two terms. His political party dominated the country from 1873 to 1916 (although he died in 1904). The Conquest of the Desert would be his great gesture, but the results were very questionable. Thirty years after those events, their consequences were still impossible to sustain. It was when the famous episode of Tragic Patagonia took place. 

 Leandro N. Alem, founder of the Radical Party in 1891. 

 Juan B. Justo, founder of the Socialist Party in 1896. 

 Luis Brandoni, Héctor Alterio and Pepe Soriano, among others, starred in the film “La Patagonia rebelde” (scene). Directed by Héctor Olivera and production by Fernando Ayala and himself, it premiered in 1974. It narrated the episodes that took place during the Santa Cruz strike in the 1920s. 

 “ Argentine radicalism” (David Rock, Ediciones Amorrortu - Buenos Aires, 1977) and the work of Marcela García Sebastiani,   “Radicals and Socialists in Peronist Argentina (1946 — 1945)”, published  in Madrid, Frankfurt and Ibero-America by Vervuert, 2006, represent two examples of history of the same force in the context of the nascent last century.

Publication Date: 01/09/2019

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We suggest you continue reading the following notes:

Historia-51 Juan Perón — Part II: tranpolitics
El Gobierno que nos merecemos The Government we deserve



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By: Martín 01 September, 2019

Un gran aporte en estos tiempos para ver de dónde venimos. Muchas gracias profesor.

By: Jony 01 September, 2019

gracias por poner a Brandoni en la Patagonia rebelde. Todo un simbolo

By: JO 01 September, 2019

LA FRASE "Ahora el frío era el testigo impiadoso de las mismas batallas ideológicas que se libraban en Buenos Aires" ES LAPIDARIA. GRACIAS POR UNA NOTA TAN ESCLARECEDORA.

By: carlos 01 September, 2019

es inevitable pensar en un pasado esperanzado ante un presente que presenta incertidumbre

By: Juan de Capital 01 September, 2019

es muy buena nota porque plantea la base de los conflictos argentinos de raíz

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