Until the appearance of the Inca Empire, which affected much of the NOA, the absence of a single reference point ended up shaping the autonomous character of the groups of people who inhabited ancient Argentina. However, such a circumstance did not prevent fruitful contact between the various tribes in the different regions of the country; a series of ten to fifteen languages ended up developing from north to south. Although the ethnic characteristics of each tribe remained more or less stable, surely, in addition to economic and cultural exchange, the miscegenation was very intense.
On the other hand, since men stopped hunting giant mammals, the local ecosystem provided surprising stability for the development of their activities. Over the next millennia they would have established mobility standards appropriate to changing the seasons. This pending way of life of nature led to prehistoric argentines to search for hunting and harvesting territories according to the normal development of astronomical cycles.
It was at the end of the last glaciation that the territory took its present appearance, at least about 9,000 years ago. In this period human actions would depend exclusively on the characteristics of the habitat where each group developed. This was already noted by the Spaniards when they arrived in the 16th century: those who managed to settle here after Solís's failed attempt, were able to observe the physiological differences existing between the inhabitants of the plains, mountains and mountain ranges with respect to those of subtropical forests. The jesuits , in times of missions , clearly distinguished the Chaná, Kaingang and Guaraní from the rest of the large groups in the north-west, center and south of the country.
There are currently several disciplines that support historians when it comes to drawing migratory maps of these ancient people. According to genetic studies specialist Spencer Wells, author of Human Genome, since our species left Africa 100,000 years ago, it has not stopped moving. For this reason, when drawing a Population Map, it is necessary to go to a discipline called” population genetics ”, which allows us to reconstruct the prehistoric route of our ancestors and, in the case of the inhabitants of the Argentine jungles, finally unveil the question that the Jesuits opened .
After an extensive study that included DNA analysis of groups from all regions of the world, Spencer Wells's genealogy confirmed that, although 16,000 years ago the inhabitants of the South American jungles were part of the groups that migrated through the mountainous areas from all regions of the world Alaska until Jujuy, quickly, in the Venezuelan Caribbean a group separated in order to conquer the large tropical expanses of the east. They left alone through the Orinoco Basin to the Amazon and from there to the Iguazu River and Mesopotamia Argentina. The isolation from the conquerors of the mountains and plains, the climatic conditions and the population inbreeding gave the inhabitants of the jungle that particular physiognomy that they had noticed the jesuits . They were right. This unique feature could also be sensed in a very special way in his language, because the native languages spoken by the groups Chaná, Kaingáng and Guarani preserved sounds reminiscent of the first languages spoken by man.
In contrast, the references of the Western tribes, as well as those highlighted in the linguistic forms used in Chile, were profoundly modified by the Andean civilizations . Marked by patterns spread inside and near Inca territories , developed new expressions that were remarkably combined even until the arrival of the Spaniards. At the same time, jungle tribes were not exposed to this exchange between the north and the south. Isolated, preserved some of the mysterious ancestral forms that the peoples of Asia had developed before their epic crossing the Bering Strait .
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