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The architects and researchers of the UNR Aníbal Moliné and Roberto De Gregorio conducted a study on the identity of the Rosario center that was being built in the first half of the twentieth century. For two years they analyzed the architecture and history of the buildings that formed the central area of the city .
“In that concern to find a meaning to Rosario 's identity , we decided to divide work into tall buildings and low houses, which presupposes a double sense of identity. From the moment there is a certain technical capacity and the intention to overturn capital into the expression of that power, the leaders of the Rosarina society turn towards the buildings in height, while the bass come to play as a kind of choir,” explains Aníbal Moliné .
De Gregorio studied buildings in height, his work is a tour of the city 's most striking architecture. The first stage he analyzed was from 1900 to 1920, a period that was characterized by establishing the central area that extended from Plaza 25 de Mayo to the west by Córdoba .
The first tall building built in the city is “La Bola de Nieve” from 1906, opposite the square 25 de mayo. “This centrality lasted a short time, immediately two insurance companies sent to build multi-storey constructions on the corner of Corrientes and Córdoba, moving the center to that area and leaving the square as a sort of backyard until the Monument to the Flag was built and that area once again had a certain entity,” says the UNR architect.
The oldest of these buildings , located on the southeast corner, was built by Federico Callivadino in 1907, for the insurer “La Agrícola” and reproduced the model of the Creole houses or chorizo houses, stacking one on another. In front of this, in 1916 the building of the company “La Inmobiliaria” built by Buschiazzo and son was built, and already had a more luxurious style like the buildings of Buenos Aires .
In the first decades of the 20th century, buildings in height sought greater ostentation and luxury but did not represent any originality or constituted any school. In general, according to the architect , until 1920 images of other important buildings in the world were moved and replicated in Rosario .
From the 1920s modernity bursts, but it does not in skyscrapers but in houses and individual dwellings emerge for middle-class families . The buildings were modernized inside but not on the facades. Examples of this stage are the “Palacio Fuentes” and “Palacio Cabanellas”.
The Fuentes Palace was designed with the goal of rent and was built to achieve the largest number of apartments . The façade is monumental , with luxurious materials, sculptures , and the most characteristic is the tower with the clock, which rings chimes every hour with the aim of being present in the history of the city .
The “Cabanellas Palace”, located in Sarmiento and San Luis, was designed by Francisco Roca Simó and responds to Catalan modernism. “It is an unusual building , with no history in the city , with the use of vitraux and iron ornaments, but left no more signs than the initial surprise,” he said.
In 1923 he opened his career in architecture at the then Faculty of Mathematical, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences Applied to Industry, dependent on the National University of the Litoral. Until that time all the works had been done by foreigners but the production of national architects begins to be seen.
The influence of young professionals was the Bauhaus school in Germany. “ The Bauhaus was a partnership between the designer and the craftsman, and they produced a design more related to industry, to produce in series.” One of the characteristic buildings of this period is the “Industry and Commerce” building in Santa Fe at 1300, designed in the 1930s by architects Agustín Arman and Atilio Tedeschini.
At the end of the 1920s emerged an architect who will modify the rosarino design, it is Ermete De Lorenzi , born in Trebol and formed between Rosario and Buenos Aires , who founded a studio with Julio Otaola and Hannibal Rocca . “One of the works of De Lorenzi is that of Córdoba and Oroño, “La Comercial”. It is like a lighthouse that announces that modernity was installed and one of the characteristics is that coherence is achieved between the interior and the exterior of the buildings .”
Moliné and De Gregorio are conducting a new research into how the city developed from the middle of the 20th century to 1990. The project The concurrence of two building modalities in the conformation of the urban identity of Rosario, by the architects Moliné, De Gregorio, Córdoba and Rosado, was presented at the 2017 Science and Technology Conference of the National University of Rosario .
Source : Rosario12
Publication Date: 11/02/2020
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