In this arbitrary selection, we tell you the books that changed the history of humanity.
Dialogues (Plato). These are different texts where the Greek philosopher, Plato, brings the voice of Socrates, who debates with his contemporaries the great metaphysical, moral and political problems. Plato lived from 387 to 347 B.C. He was a disciple of Socrates and a master Aristotle. Between the three, from ancient Greece, they forever changed Western philosophy.
Bible / Torah / Koran. They are nothing less than the Sacred Scriptures that gave form to three of the most practiced monotheistic religions in the world: Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
Beowulf (Anonymous). It is considered the first poem in a modern European language that reflects a feudal, newly Christian world of heroes and monsters, blood and victory. The author and date of composition are unknown, although the date of publication is estimated to be between the 8th and 12th centuries AD. It is written in ancient English and has 3182 verses.
The Divine Comedy (Dante Alighieri). The great poem by the Italian Alighieri, where hell, purgatory and paradise had never been represented with such mastery and lyricism. Dante summarizes an accumulated knowledge of centuries, from antiquity to the medieval world, with the religious Faith and the moral and philosophical convictions present in each verse. It is estimated that it was first published in 1307.
Hamlet (William Shakespeare). One of the most emblematic works of English Elizabethan theatre. It is said that with Hamlet, was born the consciousness of the subject that later, philosophers like Kant will approach in their works. It was published sometime between 1599 and 1601.
The ingenious nobleman Don Quixote de la Mancha (Miguel de Cervantes). It began as a mockery of the works of chivalry of the time and became the pinnacle of Spanish literature. It was published in 1605 and represents the first modern novel and the first polyphonic novel.
El discurso del método (René Descartes). "Pienso, luego existo" was the famous phrase of René Descartes that gave entity to a new way of knowing and knowing the world. It marked a break in Western thought. It was published anonymously in Leiden, Holland, in the year 1637 under the title: "Discourse on the method to conduct one's own reason well and to seek truth in the sciences".
Criticism (Emmanuel Kant). The critique of pure reason; of practical reason, and of judgment are the three pillars of the great work of the German Immanuel Kant. There he reflects on the faculties of reason, understanding and sensitivity, among other great questions. The critique of pure reason, first published in 1781, deals with a transcendental inquiry into the epistemic conditions of human knowledge whose central objective is to achieve a definitive answer as to whether metaphysics can be considered a science.
The origin of species (Charles Darwin). With this book, the English scientist Charles Darwin presented his theory of evolution through natural selection. Today it continues to be the basis of the study of nature for contemporary biology. It was published on November 24, 1859 and is considered a forerunner of scientific literature and the foundation of the theory of evolutionary biology.
Capital (Karl Marx). Undoubtedly, the most revolutionary and influential text. There, the German Marx unraveled and explained the bases of the capitalist system and its class struggle, through a treatise of critique of political economy. At the same time it is considered a work of philosophy, an economic or political treatise that describes the relations of domination between the social classes: on the one hand the proletarians and on the other the bourgeois. It was published in 1867.
Thus spoke Zarathustra (FriedrichNietzsche). In this work, the thinker synthesizes the essence of his philosophy, destined to the creation of the superman. Some consider this text as the counter-figure of the Bible and a manual for those who seek Truth, Good and Evil. It contains the main ideas of Nietzsche expressed poetically, and is composed of stories, speeches, facts and reflections of a prophet called Zarathustra (character inspired by Zoroaster, founder of Mazdeism or Zoroastrianism). It was printed in 1883.
The Interpretation of Dreams (Sigmund Freud). No theory like psychoanalytic doctrine exerted as much influence as that of the Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, who established a different way of understanding psychic reality. The author argues that dreams are a hallucinatory realization of desires and consequently, a privileged way of access to the unconscious, through the use of the interpretative method based on the free association of the most important symbols of the dream. It was published in November 1899 and revolutionized the 20th century.
The second sex (Simone de Beauvoir). One of the bedside books on Feminism, where the famous phrase of the philosopher resounds: "Woman is made, one is not born". Its author, Simone-Lucie-Ernestine-Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir, com
Fuente: Sec. de Cultura de la Nación